Spinal cord Cauda equina - bunch of spinal nerves located in the vertebral canal that connect to lower body parts Filum terminale - the extension of the pia mater that anchors the spinal cord to the bottom of the vertebral canal Conus medullaris - cone shaped end of the spinal cord where the spinal nerves come out to go to the lower body parts Lumbar enlargement - where the nerves come out to go to the lower extremities Spinal nerves - connect the spinal cord to verious body parts Ribs Cervical enlargement - where the nerves come out to go to the upper extremities Brain - the integration center

Upper region of spinal cord Brachial nerves - nerves that go to the upper extremities Autonomic ganglia - contain post ganglionic or autonomic neurons Cervical plexus - a network formed by the anterior rami branches of C1-C5 Brachial plexus - a network formed by anterior rami branches of C5-T1 Cervical enlargement - where spinal nerves come out to connect to upper extremities

Middle region of spinal cord Autonomic ganglia - contain postganglionic or autonomic neurons Filum terminale - extension of pia mater that anchors the spinal cord to the bottom of the vertebral canal Conus medullaris - cone shaped end of the spinal cord that gives nerves for the lower body parts Lumbar enlargement - where spinal nerves exit to go to the lower body parts Intercostal muscles - muscles involved in breathing Thoracic/Intercostal nerves - nerves that connect to the intercostal muscles Rib Brachial nerves - nerves that connect to muscle and skin of the upper extremities

Lower region of spinal cord Cauda equina - bunch of spinal nerves located in the vertebral canal that connect to lower body parts Filum terminale - extension of pia mater that anchors the spinal cord to the bottom of the vertebral canal Conus medullaris - cone shaped end of the spinal cord that gives nerves for the lower body parts Sacral plexus - a network formed by anterior rami branches of S1-S5 Lumbar plexus - a network formed by anterior rami branches of L1-L5

Location of spinal cord Epidural space filled with adipose tissue Subarachnoid space filled with CSF Denticulate ligament - extensions of pia mater that anchor the spinal cord laterally in the vertebral canal Motor nerve fibers - the fibers that take impulses away from the spinal cord Spinal nerve - has afferent and efferent fibers taking impulses to and from spinal cord Spinal cord - the integration center Arachnoid mater - the middle meninx that protects the spinal cord Meninges - dense connective tissue membranes that protect the spinal cord Pia mater - the innermost meninx that adheres to the spinal cord and protects it Dura mater - the outermost meninx that protects the spinal cord Vertebra

Cross section 1 Lateral gray horn - the part of the grey matter where interneurons are located Lateral gray horn - the part of the grey matter where interneurons are located Anterior gray horn - the part of the grey matter where motor neurons exit the spinal cord to go to the effector Anterior gray horn - the part of the grey matter where motor neurons exit the spinal cord to go to the effector Posterior gray horn - the part of the grey matter where sensory neurons enter the spinal cord Posterior gray horn - the part of the grey matter where sensory neurons enter the spinal cord Gray commissure - part of the grey matter that connects the two sides of the spinal cord Central canal - a canal in the center of spinal cord that is lined with eppendymal cells and circulates CSF Lateral white column - part of the white matter where ascending and descending tracts are located Lateral white column - part of the white matter where ascending and descending tracts are located Anterior white column - part of the white matter where ascending and descending tracts are located Anterior white column - part of the white matter where ascending and descending tracts are located Posterior white column - part of the white matter where ascending and descending tracts are located Posterior white column - part of the white matter where ascending and descending tracts are located Ventral/Anterior root (motor fibers) - the fibers that take impulses away from the spinal cord Dorsal/Posterior root (sensory fibers) - the fibers that take impulses to the spinal cord Meninges - dense connective tissue membranes that protect the spinal cord Pia mater - the innermost meninx that adheres to the spinal cord and protects it Arachnoid mater - the middle meninx that protects the spinal cord Dura mater - the outermost meninx that protects the spinal cord Vertebra Posterior median sulcus - a depression on the posterior surface of the spinal cord that divides the spinal cord into right and left and accommodates blood vessels Anterior median fissure - a depression on the anterior surface of the spinal cord that divides the spinal cord into right and left and accommodates blood vessels Subarachnoid space filled with CSF Denticulate ligament - extensions of pia mater that anchor the spinal cord laterally in the vertebral canal Subdural space with interstitial fluid Epidural space with adipose tissue

Cross section 2 Gray commissure - part of the grey matter that connects the two sides of the spinal cord Gray commissure - part of the grey matter that connects the two sides of the spinal cord Central canal - a canal in the center of spinal cord that is lined with eppendymal cells and circulates CSF Central canal - a canal in the center of spinal cord that is lined with eppendymal cells and circulates CSF Posterior gray horn - the part of the grey matter where sensory neurons enter the spinal cord Posterior gray horn - the part of the grey matter where sensory neurons enter the spinal cord Anterior gray horn - the part of the grey matter where motor neurons exit the spinal cord to go to the effector Anterior gray horn - the part of the grey matter where motor neurons exit the spinal cord to go to the effector Anterior white column - part of the white matter where ascending and descending tracts are located Anterior white column - part of the white matter where ascending and descending tracts are located Lateral white column - part of the white matter where ascending and descending tracts are located Lateral white column - part of the white matter where ascending and descending tracts are located Posterior white column - part of the white matter where ascending and descending tracts are located Posterior white column - part of the white matter where ascending and descending tracts are located Spinal nerve (Mixed nerve - contains sensory and motor fibers) Posterior/dorsal root ganglion (contains cell bodies of sensory neurons) Posterior/Dorsal root (sensory fibers that take impulses to the rootlets and then the spinal cord) Anterior/Ventral root (motor fibers of the rootlets join to take impulses out of the spinal cord to the effector) Anterior/Ventral rootlets (motor fibers - axons of motor neurons taking impulses out of the spinal cord to the effector) Anterior/Ventral rootlets (motor fibers - axons of motor neurons taking impulses out of the spinal cord to the effector) Posterior/Dorsal rootlets (sensory fibers - axons of sensory neurons bringing impulses into the spinal cord) Posterior/Dorsal rootlets (sensory fibers - axons of sensory neurons bringing impulses into the spinal cord) Anterior median fissure - a depression on the anterior surface of the spinal cord that divides the spinal cord into right and left and accommodates blood vessels Anterior median fissure - a depression on the anterior surface of the spinal cord that divides the spinal cord into right and left and accommodates blood vessels Posterior median sulcus - a depression on the posterior surface of the spinal cord that divides the spinal cord into right and left and accommodates blood vessels Posterior median sulcus - a depression on the posterior surface of the spinal cord that divides the spinal cord into right and left and accommodates blood vessels

Cross section 3 Anterior/Ventral root (motor fibers of the rootlets join to take impulses out of the spinal cord to the effector) Anterior/Ventral rootlets (motor fibers - axons of motor neurons taking impulses out of the spinal cord to the effector) Spinal nerve (Mixed nerve - contains sensory and motor fibers) Posterior/dorsal root ganglion (contains cell bodies of sensory neurons) Porterior/Dorsal root (sensory fibers that take impulses to the rootlets and then the spinal cord) Posterior/Dorsal rootlets (sensory fibers - axons of sensory neurons bringing impulses into the spinal cord) Anterior gray horn - the part of the grey matter where motor neurons exit the spinal cord to go to the effector Lateral gray horn - the part of the grey matter where interneurons are located Posterior gray horn - the part of the grey matter where sensory neurons enter the spinal cord Posterior white column - part of the white matter where ascending and descending tracts are located Lateral white column - part of the white matter where ascending and descending tracts are located Anterior white column - part of the white matter where ascending and descending tracts are located Gray commissure - part of the grey matter that connects the two sides of the spinal cord Central canal - a canal in the center of spinal cord that is lined with eppendymal cells and circulates CSF Anterior median fissure - a depression on the anterior surface of the spinal cord that divides the spinal cord into right and left and accommodates blood vessels Posterior median sulcus - a depression on the posterior surface of the spinal cord that divides the spinal cord into right and left and accommodates blood vessels

Nervous tissue Cell body of the neuron - cells that send impulses Nucleus of the glial cell - cells that support neurons Nissl bodies in the cell body of the neuron - clusters of rough endoplasmic reticulum Nucleus of the neuron Nerve fiber - take impulses to or from the cell body of the neuron Cell body of the neuron - main part of the cells that send impulses Nucleus of the neuroglial cell - cells that support neurons