Spinal curves and nerves Cauda equina - a bunch of spinal nerves located in the lower part of the vertebral canal Conus medullaris - the end of the spinal cord that gives nerves for lower body parts Lumbar enlargement - gives spinal nerves for lower body parts Cervical enlargement - gives spinal nerves for head, neck and arms Sacral curve - the hip curve Lumbar curve - the lower back curve Thoracic curve - the upper back curve Cervical Curve - the neck curve

Intervertebral foramen Spinal nerve - has afferent and efferent fibers to connect spinal cord to peripheral organs and structures Intervertebral foramen - hole between adjacent vertebrae through which spinal nerve exits Vertebra - bones of the vertebral column that give it the strength Intervertebral Disc - cartilage disc that provides flexibility to the vertebral column Vertebral canal - where spinal cord is located Intervertebral foramen - hole between adjacent vertebrae through which spinal nerve exits Intervertebral Disc - cartilage disc that provides flexibility to the vertebral column Vertebra - bones of the vertebral column that give it the strength

Spinal nerve histology Fascicle - group of fibers in a nerve Myelin sheath - layers of plasma membrane that insulate a nerve fiber Myelin sheath - layers of plasma membrane that insulate a nerve fiber Axon Axon Nucleus of Schwann cell - glial cell that forms myelin sheath around a nerve fiber Nucleus of Schwann cell - glial cell that forms myelin sheath around a nerve fiber Endoneurium - connective tissue inside a fascicle Nerve fibers in a fascicle Perineurium - connective tissue that surround a fascicle Perineurium - connective tissue that surround a fascicle Epineurium - connective tissue that wraps around a nerve Epineurium - connective tissue that wraps around a nerve Peripheral nerve Artery Spinal nerve - has afferent and efferent fibers to connect spinal cord to peripheral organs and structures

Spinal reflex Effector - structure that responds (a muscle or a gland) Axon of motor neuron - takes impulses from spinal cord to the effector Cell body of motor neuron - located in the spinal cord and takes impulses from spinal cord to the effector Interneuron/association neuron - a neuron located in the spinal cord and connects sensory neuron to a motor neuron Axon of sensory neuron - takes impulses from the receptor to the spinal cord Cell body of sensory neuron - takes impulses from the receptor to the spinal cord Posterior/dorsal root ganglion - a swelling located outside the spinal cord and houses the cell body of the sensory neuron Spinal nerve - has afferent and efferent nerve fibers Dendrite of the sensory neuron - takes impulses from the receptor to the spinal cord Receptor - senses changes in the environment