Translation - basic principle

Translation - genetic code Learn to use the Genetic Code table for translation step: the table lists 64 combinations, 3 nucleotides each, known as codons; one codon (AUG) is a start codon to start translation and codes for amino acid methionine; three codons (UAA, UAG, UGA) are stop codons to terminate translation; all other codons code for specific amino acids; an amino acid can be coded by one or more codons

Translation -  requirements Seven codons

Translation - process mRNA: is a RNA that is made by putting together nitrigenous bases corresponding to the base sequence on the section of DNA coding for a protein Polypeptide: is a chain of amino acids that is ready to fold and form a 3D structure of a protein Termination: the ribosome reaches the last codon (UGA) on mRNA which is the stop codon; this codon does not code for an amino acid; it also triggers the two subunits of ribosomes to dettach; translation terminates; polypeptide is ready! Elongation: the ribosome moves along mRNA in 5' to 3'direction; it reads the next codon on mRNA; the tRNA whose anticodon matches with the codon on mRNA moves in; an enzyme - peptidyl transferase joins the amino acids by a peptide bond; the first tRNA dettaches; and this contiues……. Termination: Initiation: the two subunits of a ribosome bind to the 5' end of mRNA; the first tRNA binds to the first codon on mRNA that is the start codon - AUG; this tRNA has the anticodon UAC which corresponds to the codon AUG and it has the amino acid methionine that is coded by AUG on mRNA tRNA: it is the RNA that is shaped like a clover; it has a set of 3 nucleotides called the anticodon - the sequence corresponds to the codon on mRNA to match up and attach; it has an amino acid that is coded by the codon on mRNA; remember to read the codon sequence of mRNA on the genetic code table & not read the anticodon of tRNA!