Dicot vs. monocots

Dicot Monocot Monocots have ribbon-like leaves with parallel veins, stems have scattered vascular bundles, floral parts are in multiples of three, seeds have one cotyledon Dicots have broader leaves, avscular bundles are arranged in a ring along the periphery, floral parts are in multiples of four or five, seeds have two coltyledons Sepals Seeds Seeds Fruit - encloses seeds Fruit - encloses seeds Anther - bears pollen grains Anther - bears pollen grains Filament Filament Style Style Ovary Ovary Petals Petals

Dicot monocot seeds Plumule - embryonic shoot Plumule - embryonic shoot Endosperm - stores nutrients Endosperm - stores nutrients Cotyledon - stores nutrients for the embryo Cotyledon - stores nutrients for the embryo Cotyledon - stores nutrients for the embryo Radicle - embryonic root Radicle - embryonic root Seed coat - protects seed

Root tissues Xylem - conducts water Phloem - conducts sugars from leaves to other parts of the plant Endodermis Vascular cylinder - made of conducting tissue - xylem and phloem Cortex - made of parenchyma cells Cortex - made of parenchyma cells

Stem histology Vascular bundle scattered in the ground tissue Vascular bundle form a ring along the periphery Xylem - transports water Xylem - transports water Phloem - transports sugars Phloem - transports sugars Ground tissue - not separated into cortex and pith Pith - part of the ground tissue Cortex - part of the ground tissue

Leaf histology Air spaces for circulation of gases in spongy mesophyll Epidermal cells Guard cells - regulate the opening Stomata - the pores for gas exchange Stomates - allow carbon dioxide to enter and oxygen to exit the leaves Smaller branches of the vein - composed of xylem and phloem Smaller branches of the vein - composed of xylem and phloem Main central vein - composed of xylem and phloem Lower epidermis Lower epidermis Spongy mesophyll - loosely arranged parenchymal cells that contain chloroplasts for photosynthesis Spongy mesophyll - loosely arranged parenchymal cells that contain chloroplasts for photosynthesis Palisade mesophyll - packed parenchymal cells that contain chloroplasts for photosynthesis Palisade mesophyll - packed parenchymal cells that contain chloroplasts for photosynthesis Upper epidermis Upper epidermis Waxy layer on upper surface of the leaf - Prevents water loss